Chat with us, powered by LiveChat
Opinion / Politics

Understanding Syrian Kurds and US Obligations – Trump Should Broker Peace

KurdsThe plight of the Kurds – in Syria, Turkey, Iran, and Iraq – is long, complicated and heartbreaking: People without a nation, no Balfour Declaration for sovereignty, no endgame, and now shaky allies. There is a way forward, if the Trump Administration will adopt it: Peace.

How does one begin to tell the story of the Kurds?  They trace their heritage to Corduene, an ancient region in eastern Turkey.  Their origins are found in Syriac sources, once a small state between Armenia and Iran.  For most of history, Kurds were in the Roman Empire, only independent between 189 to 90 BC.

In 1514, they aligned with the Ottomans.  By 1597, an epic Kurdish history showed pre-Islamic dynasties.  That said, assigning exact coordinates or borders to the Kurds has long been difficult.

Providing them a specific chunk of land only got harder after World War I.  While the Ottoman Empire was vanquished, accommodation for the Kurds was fumbled.  A secret 1916 accord between the French and British imagined such a place, and the Treaty of Sevres in 1920 carved one out – but by 1923, the Turks under Mustafa Ataturk had upended the treaty and established modern-day Turkey.  Losers were the Kurds.

Then came World War II, when Kurds fought with the Allies to defeat the Germans, for a second time.  They were part of British Royal Marine Commandos, parachuting into Albania, Italy, Greece and Cyprus, separately assisting the Soviets – then US Allies – to defeat the Axis in Sevastopol, Leningrad, Stalingrad, Hungary, and Manchuria.  But alas, luck eluded them.

After WWII, although the Soviet Union aimed for an independent Kurdish state in northwestern Iran, they withdrew, and that plan collapsed.  The result:  A stateless Kurdish diaspora.

Fast forward to now.  Half of all Kurds live in Turkey, yet Turkey bans distinct ethnic groups; speaking Kurdish was illegal until 1991.  Repression in Turkey is pervasive, although the Iraq War brought a semi-autonomous Kurdistan Regional Government within Iraq.

Unfortunately, as is often the case, actions set off reactions.  In 1978, a nationalist Kurd group called the PKK came into existence.  While it aimed for an independent Kurdistan, it also resorted to terror and drug trafficking.  We rightly condemn the PKK on both grounds.

Now, we come to recent Syria.  After the civil war erupted, ISIS grabbed parts of Syria and northern Iraq.  These areas were populated by Kurds.  When the Obama Administration pulled US forces out of Iraq – ISIS just exploded.

The threat posed by ISIS to Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Western Europe and – through power projection the US – was significant.  The US surged to win back lost land, with decisive assistance from the Kurds, who were simultaneously battling the Syrian government for control of northern land.

As a result of Kurdish support, ISIS was defeated.  This fulfilled a campaign pledge by President Trump.  In all fairness, without Kurdish resolve, assistance and sacrifice – ISIS would not have been destroyed, certainly not without more US blood and treasure.

So, what has just happened?  President Trump had pledged to disentangle the US military from Middle Eastern conflicts, to drawdown US forces not needed – including in Syria.  Sadly, that decision conflicts with pledges made to the Kurds, when they helped us to defeat ISIS.

When President Trump signaled a pullback of US forces in northern Syria, who had fought beside the Kurds, Turkey’s Islamist, anti-Kurd President Recep Erdogan, attacked the Syrian Kurds.

To some, this was predictable.  To others, Erdogan’s appetite for Kurdish destruction was surprising.  It should not have been.  Diplomacy had broken down.  Erdogan, who lauds the Ottoman Empire, fears the Kurds – since they could ignite an internal uprising via the PKK.

When the US argued that Kurdish allies in Syria are not the PKK, Erdogan ignored the distinction.  Unfortunately, this leaves the Syrian Kurds, US service members and the Trump Administration in a strange place.

Turkey is hardly behaving like a NATO member, or US ally.  The Kurds are looking to the Russians for help, even as Turks buys Russian anti-missile technology.  Turks have attacked large chunks of Kurdish Syrian territory, putting US allies and civilians at risk.

While President Trump likely did not expect the melee, he must stop it.  First, he should make clear that Turkey is a NATO ally, and that means acting like a civilized nation.  Second, he should prepare to bring down the economic hammer on Turkey – fast.  Third, he should make clear US support for the idea of a Syrian semi-autonomous zone, while condemning all Kurdish-related terror and the PKK.  Fourth, he should send a senior envoy to negotiate an immediate ceasefire.

Finally, there is a rabbit to pull from the hat. President Trump should elevate peace negotiations, talk up the Syrian Kurdish safe zone, and activate the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).  The move would make peace possible, draw in 57 countries, and be unexpected.

The US mission to OSCE should lean forward, swiftly resolving this crisis between Turks and Syrian Kurds. President Trump could lead the charge for peace, using “the paramount instrument for building a region of stable, open societies in which every country lives at peace,” the OSCE.

If not now, when?  If not Trump, who? If we do not stop Turkey from going rogue, undermining US commitments to allies, and killing civilians, what is next? Now that we know – let’s stop the overreach, broker a lasting peace.  Now, that would be a legacy.

If You Enjoy Articles Like This - Subscribe to the AMAC Daily Newsletter!

Sign Up Today
Read more articles by Robert B. Charles

4
Leave a Reply

4 Comment threads
0 Thread replies
0 Followers
 
Most reacted comment
Hottest comment thread
3 Comment authors
  Subscribe  
newest oldest most voted
Notify of
JohnH

It is now day 3 from the USA envoy of Pence/Pompeo and what has happened??? Time is short & I saw on news tonight that USA is going to protect oil fields?? Make Peace not War in the 60’s was not a bad idea

JohnH

Major question: Something like +30 million Kurds & if they have no country, then where are they supposed to go??? And Turkey calls now for 120-hr pause in attack, so is that all the time allowed for that many people to leave this zone??? Crazy & mixed up mess that started with Trump phone call to Turkey??? And why did Russia come into Syria so quick?? Today, Trump said that US has the oil production, what does he mean?? What happens to US air base in Turkey & US weapons there?? Is US blowing up their former military bases in Syria before they pull out. Last, what if the thousands of ISIS prisoners get loose again & Trump said they should go back to country they came from ??? What a tangle mess over one decision

Mimi

Sadly, we’ve helped them for years. The President knows what he’s doing, he’s taking a different approach by putting massive economic sanctions on Turkey, instead of more fighting and more American deaths. It looks like we’ve abandoned the Kurds, not so, but the death and destruction still hasn’t brought them a homeland. Keep doing what you’re doing and expecting a different outcome =insanity!! This President is a master negotiator, let’s give him a chance to make a real change for the Kurds.

LTC S

I don’t think all Kurds are to be considered the same. Turkey has a large Kurd population that it seems to tolerate. I think there’s more to this conflict that is not being presented to us. Please give us the back ground as to why Turkey felt this action was necessary from their point of view.