How Much Does Illegal Immigration Cost You?

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Executive Summary

Unlawful immigration and amnesty for current unlawful immigrants can pose large fiscal costs for U.S. taxpayers. Government provides four types of benefits and services that are relevant to this issue:

  • Direct benefits. These include Social Security, Medicare, unemployment insurance, and workers’ compensation.
  • Means-tested welfare benefits. There are over 80 of these programs which, at a cost of nearly $900 billion per year, provide cash, food, housing, medical, and other services to roughly 100 million low-income Americans. Major programs include Medicaid, food stamps, the refundable Earned Income Tax Credit, public housing, Supplemental Security Income, and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families.
  • Public education. At a cost of $12,300 per pupil per year, these services are largely free or heavily subsidized for low-income parents.
  • Population-based services. Police, fire, highways, parks, and similar services, as the National Academy of Sciences determined in its study of the fiscal costs of immigration, generally have to expand as new immigrants enter a community; someone has to bear the cost of that expansion.

The cost of these governmental services is far larger than many people imagine. For example, in 2010, the average U.S. household received $31,584 in government benefits and services in these four categories.

The governmental system is highly redistributive. Well-educated households tend to be net tax contributors: The taxes they pay exceed the direct and means-tested benefits, education, and population-based services they receive. For example, in 2010, in the whole U.S. population, households with college-educated heads, on average, received $24,839 in government benefits while paying $54,089 in taxes. The average college-educated household thus generated a fiscal surplus of $29,250 that government used to finance benefits for other households.

Other households are net tax consumers: The benefits they receive exceed the taxes they pay. These households generate a “fiscal deficit” that must be financed by taxes from other households or by government borrowing. For example, in 2010, in the U.S. population as a whole, households headed by persons without a high school degree, on average, received $46,582 in government benefits while paying only $11,469 in taxes. This generated an average fiscal deficit (benefits received minus taxes paid) of $35,113.

The high deficits of poorly educated households are important in the amnesty debate because the typical unlawful immigrant has only a 10th-grade education. Half of unlawful immigrant households are headed by an individual with less than a high school degree, and another 25 percent of household heads have only a high school degree.

Some argue that the deficit figures for poorly educated households in the general population are not relevant for immigrants. Many believe, for example, that lawful immigrants use little welfare. In reality, lawful immigrant households receive significantly more welfare, on average, than U.S.-born households. Overall, the fiscal deficits or surpluses for lawful immigrant households are the same as or higher than those for U.S.-born households with the same education level. Poorly educated households, whether immigrant or U.S.-born, receive far more in government benefits than they pay in taxes.

In contrast to lawful immigrants, unlawful immigrants at present do not have access to means-tested welfare, Social Security, or Medicare. This does not mean, however, that they do not receive government benefits and services. Children in unlawful immigrant households receive heavily subsidized public education. Many unlawful immigrants have U.S.-born children; these children are currently eligible for the full range of government welfare and medical benefits. And, of course, when unlawful immigrants live in a community, they use roads, parks, sewers, police, and fire protection; these services must expand to cover the added population or there will be “congestion” effects that lead to a decline in service quality.

In 2010, the average unlawful immigrant household received around $24,721 in government benefits and services while paying some $10,334 in taxes. This generated an average annual fiscal deficit (benefits received minus taxes paid) of around $14,387 per household. This cost had to be borne by U.S. taxpayers. Amnesty would provide unlawful households with access to over 80 means-tested welfare programs, Obamacare, Social Security, and Medicare. The fiscal deficit for each household would soar.

If enacted, amnesty would be implemented in phases. During the first or interim phase (which is likely to last 13 years), unlawful immigrants would be given lawful status but would be denied access to means-tested welfare and Obamacare. Most analysts assume that roughly half of unlawful immigrants work “off the books” and therefore do not pay income or FICA taxes. During the interim phase, these “off the books” workers would have a strong incentive to move to “on the books” employment. In addition, their wages would likely go up as they sought jobs in a more open environment. As a result, during the interim period, tax payments would rise and the average fiscal deficit among former unlawful immigrant households would fall.

After 13 years, unlawful immigrants would become eligible for means-tested welfare and Obamacare. At that point or shortly thereafter, former unlawful immigrant households would likely begin to receive government benefits at the same rate as lawful immigrant households of the same education level. As a result, government spending and fiscal deficits would increase dramatically.

The final phase of amnesty is retirement. Unlawful immigrants are not currently eligible for Social Security and Medicare, but under amnesty they would become so. The cost of this change would be very large indeed.




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190 Comments on "How Much Does Illegal Immigration Cost You?"

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Angelica Weatherbee
1 month 12 days ago

Your information is inaccurate this article just shows how some people lie to bring other people on board with ideas that have no basis. If your readers are intelligent they should read information from other real and reliable sources. Shame on you who build a web page to lie to others.

Daniel Manosalva
3 months 28 days ago

I can’t trust this article if it starts with Social Security cost for illegals. They DO NOT get social security or medicare. Only authorized workers do. I’m against illegal immigration but many many bussinesses have taken advantage of this by paying low salaries and many american poor people are not willing to do the hard work that illegals do. So, go find a less biased source.

3 months 17 days ago

You clearly did not even read the article. The article actually uses the range of benefits to create a level playing field to compare rates. But if YOU were not so biased in the first two sentences, you might have noticed that.

Honorable Michael B. Fuller,Sui Juris
4 months 19 days ago
Extraordinary abuse abusive moral turpitude wrongfulness violation against Federal Immigration act section 8 U.S.C. 1324 (a)(1)(a)(iv)(b)(iii): INA 274 a (a)(1)(a): Section 8 U.S.C. 1325 Improper entry Aliens Asians or smart they can learn President Bruce A. Harrell Seattle City Council member 1962(d) conspiracy. Organized crime control act October 15,1970 Sign by Richard Nixon. Bruce A. Harrell where do we go from here with Asians are smart they can learn enemies and smart at the times of two or three war conflict against our females and males Armed Forces of America on Native Land. President Bruce A. Harrell Seattle City Council member. fraudulent and dishonest act Bruce A. Harrell. Where does it state in the first ten amendments of the Bill of Rights. That Asians or smart they can learn Bruce A. Harrell. Illegal and unconstitutional tens of thousands of unregistered voters, Martin Luther King Jr. Voters rights act 1965 being… Read more »
5 months 2 days ago

So Heritage has established that low education people have low incomes, and that low income people receive more benefits than they pay in taxes. Then they say illegal immigrants have low education levels.

Funny, I missed the part where they link illegal immigrants to spending on social programs. Funny given the number of laws Heritage has backed that specifically prevent illegal aliens from receive nearly ANY government benefits.

So if you believe this shows that illegal immigrants cost tax payers money, then I’ve got a card game called “find the lady” that you just *have* to play.

Michael Richard Slattery
5 months 6 days ago

$900B/yr? Check your numbers. that’s 50% more than we spend on defense.

4 months 15 days ago

You should check your numbers…the 80 plus programs spend over a trillion per year…wake up and stop believing fascist propaganda…

3 months 22 days ago

Show us a link of these so called facts.

5 months 21 days ago

A man robbed a bank (because his family was hungry) and as he drove away he was apprehended by the Police. The judge let him go and allowed him to keep the money and the robbery was deleted from his record. Does that sound realistic? Does that sound right? Allowing illegals to not pay for their criminal act and allowing them to even gain for it is a complete fracture of our values and system. It is atrocious and all of them need to be sent back to their country of origin ASAP. Splitting up families? YES it’s not our fault THEY or THEIRS have put them in this criminal situation.

6 months 5 days ago

Ryan, you seem to be in favor of illegal immigration. I will change my opinion to yours if you will leave the doors to your home open all the time and be the sole support of all the illegals who come into your house and expect to stay forever. The illegals will even get together and protest if you try to evict them! And if the other LEGAL RESIDENTS in your home object to supporting them, they have no choice but to contribute. Did you find any misspelled words etc. in this comment?

Angelica Weatherbee
1 month 12 days ago
Let me explain this in a different and more realistic way. You have a house that needs A LOT of work and you either have no time to do it or cannot or are not willing to pay a high rate to do the work. So you know that outside the fence there are a lot of people willing and able to do all the work you need, so you open the fence and allow them to enter without papers because that is convenient to you since they will have no rights and can be kicked out at your convenience, then you let them do the job, with a low pay rate convenient to you and better than nothing for them. They work their asses off and they do it so good that you let more people in. You are NOT SUPPORTING THEM, you established a relationship of convenience for… Read more »
2 months 23 days ago

This is about the most accurate post I’ve read yet!! Thank you for sharing!

5 months 29 days ago


6 months 6 days ago

Unlawful immigrants cannot receive SSI, Unemployment and/or Medicare, they do not have a valid Social Security Number, making it impossible. However they own business and properties. If they are deported, all their business will close and all those properties would go into foreclosure; we could repeat the lending crisis from 2008. This is just one aspect. Also millions of teachers would lose their jobs, with all the schools closing, because there wont be no students, due to all that demand, their salaries would crash…. etc. There is not an easy answer to this issue.

Aaron A. Brown
3 months 9 days ago Law they are not afforded ssi, but many still do. Its calles identity theft which robs honest citizens billions yearly. Also, ssi is only one of the tax funded benefits. Illegals cost hundres of billions In hospital services. You either believe In Law And personal responsibility or you ultimately suport the degredation of society by the lack thereof.

Vans a dumb ass
5 months 11 days ago

How many immigrants do you know that own their own business you must not live in America

3 months 2 days ago

Immigrants of all types (legal and illegal) own businesses at a rate higher than native-born.

frank nowak
7 months 23 days ago

There have only been three times since COLA was added to Social Security that we did not receive an increase. All three were under Obama. What do you think will happen to your Social Security increases due to COLA when all these illegal aliens and mid-eastern refugees start receiving their Social Security checks? Not to mention terrorism, crime, disease. Anyone but Hilary!!!!

18 days 3 hours ago

It’s fairly clear that this site is mainly a republican run website (thats perfectly fine, there’s nothing wrong with that), but many of the ‘facts’ are just untrue. I do encourage a genuine discussion or debate but only when you have the FACTS. Once the true facts are revealed then you can make whatever judgement you want. This website does a disservice to Americans who truly want to get informed and not spewed propoganda . I don’t expect to get many like on this comment lol

2 months 14 days ago

Liberals have Zero ability to think forward. They have an inability to projec, they just want “fairness” at everyone else’s expense. Doesn’t matter how much middle class gets the screws put to them, the liberals will never view it as enough. They will give away to others from others until we are in a complete socialist society.

Joel Mrlk
7 months 25 days ago

It is the american people’s fault for all this bullshit happening you al want to talk your crap but don’t do anything you let’s the politicians both parties shit on all of you at least the illegals get out there and protest in numbers shame on you the American tax payer and citizens when they take over I will laugh my ass off I love America but I am only one person God help us all

Thomas Carr
2 months 8 days ago

I Agree Joel, I’ve been saying the same thing !! Millions and Millions of Americans and only a hand full of us willing to stand up to the Government !! Remember America You are the Boss !! We pay them and if YOU don’t say and do something nothing will happen !! You want change then get up and change it !! Start by voting Trump !! Right your Government , Rally at the White House ! He’s one American that isn’t afraid of your Employees ! the assholes that we overpay . your Government who is taking you for a ride !! Crooks … Get the Picture yet ! hope so, for your kids sake !!

5 months 7 days ago

We do go out and protest, write letters to our senators which go where? The shredder, we protest but the media refuses to cover such protest. Not shame on Americans, shame on the deep pockets of the bought media, politicians. You really need to understand what’s really going on. Trump does and that’s why they are working so hard to stop him. They know Trump will stop all the back room shady dealings, build the wall ect…

Rod Taylor
11 months 3 days ago

I would like to know why is it that the illegal aliens can come out and protest our immigration laws or appear on tv ,ie: the ones being shown meeting the pope in Washington DC, and not be arrested on the spot. Illegal is illegal no matter what the crime. they are ruining this country! Get em out.

11 months 1 day ago

I had no idea you could tell who was legal and who was not just by looking at them. Maybe you should contact ICE and tell them they’ve been doing it all wrong!

Lee Chilson
1 month 29 days ago

Maybe because in the interviews with the media, THEY IDENTIFY THEMSELVES as illegals…that’s how.

Common Sense
11 months 22 days ago

I wonder whether the costs of additional infrastructure to support the additional illegal immigrant population has been computed reasonably. Take California for example. How much will it cost the taxpayers of California for the hospital, transportation, electric power, water, sewer, school, law enforcement, and telecommunication infrastructure required of an additional 1 million illegal immigrants?

Angelica Weatherbee
1 month 12 days ago

All immigrants, undocumented or not pay for the services they use, they don’t have free services, so if the infrastructure needs to grow, the companies will have the income enough to plan on that type of growth.

1 year 5 days ago
Administrative Deportation Program Administered by the DSS (Department of Social Services) A practical, Constitutional and self-funding program. 1). Each non-citizen Adult and minors are required to register with the ADP and will be considered “Administratively Deported” and will be assigned a citizenship waiting list number in order of current registration. 2). All registered non-citizens waiting in line for processing of US will be allowed to remain, live and work without interruption while residing in the United States, each person will be classified as a non-citizen remain in a non-legal status until US citizenship is obtained and be considered “Administratively Deported” meaning no Federal social programs or monetary benefits will be granted or allowed to or for any person registered with the ADP with exception of Federal and State shared cost programs funding school lunches, health screenings or emergency services. 2). The citizenship of all new born children of non- citizen… Read more »
1 year 1 month ago
who on this board believes that mexico has a great society? 100%?, 50%?, 25%?, 10? thats what i thought. more illegal immigrants enter this country than american babies are being born in a single day. and thats a fact, At this rate america we know of today has a litle to no chance. The America you KNOW and love today has probably no more than 30 years before its just like mexico. There are 1.7 million active VIOLENT gang members currently in the united states, and it is estimated that nearly ALL of them are illegally living here. I dont care if your a gang member, taco seller or a fruit picker, if you are illegally in the united states then you dont belong here. Im happy to say Im old enuff to NEVER see the day that amercia FALLS to the crush of illegal mexicans. So it will be… Read more »
1 year 1 month ago

more illegal immigrants are entering than US babies being born… “thats a fact.”

Avg. of 4 million babies born per year in the US.
Estimated under 12 million undocumented immigrants total in 2012.
Similar number back in 2006 (in fact, slightly higher).

That’s not a fact.

6 months 10 days ago

are you sure you’re doing the math right, anchor babies count as u.s. born babies… hippie

1 year 2 months ago

All of this, on and on …here’s what we do, vote out these idiots who want to open our borders and reward anyone who has committed a crime, by being here illegally! Enforce the laws we have! If you vote for anyone who wants America wide open, then don’t complain because you’re voting the morons in office! ….ahem…..Obama backers

Nancy Quinn
1 year 3 months ago

Illegal is ILLEGAL!!! The Dems want these people here as they will always vote Democrat to get “free stuff”!!! Well, I have got news for THEM!!! This country was not built on ‘FREE STUFF’!!! So….here’s what we DO fellow conservatives: We on the RIGHT WILL SECEDE from this “union” and elect our own conservative leader. We will have LOW TAXES which will allow us to spend more of our hard-earned $$$$$ on the economy!!! LET’S DO IT…..;NOW!!! LONG LIVE AMERICA!!!

24 days 21 hours ago
When considering “the economy,” it is important to consider exactly for what these new seceded “countries” will assume full payment. The US military will leave and take with it those jobs as well as security they may provide the region. The transportation economy will change as those roads, bridges, buses, trains, airports, etc will no longer remain within the US as they will now be part of a new economy. Any maintenance and security will be provided by the new government, and passports will be needed to enter or leave the old US, while tariffs and duties will be collected by the US as well. Food not grown in the new country will be imported and taxed accordingly. Medical facilities therein will no longer be covered with US benefits. And, Social Security/Medicare (to which many of the new “citizens” contributed) will no longer be paid to those renouncing their US… Read more »
6 months 10 days ago

consider yourself unamerican, im a republican from s.c. born and raised. what you’re talking about is comeplety absurd, lowbrow, and down right idiocy! IT IS YOU and other true uneducated “necks” that give us the embarrassing reputation that we as the republican party have been trying to overcome since the end of the civil war. your opinons and ideals are only spurned from you’re ignorant elders, fleeting friends, and late night ventures to aweful house. stay in your hole and dont come out again. unless you need to piss in your neighbors bushes cause your drunk… FU

10 months 9 days ago

how does an illegal immigrant get registered to vote

Brent kunst
9 months 23 days ago

Through amnesty

Brent kunst
9 months 23 days ago

Giving illegal immigrants amnesty gives them great incentive to vote for who ever is granting amnesty. Because they want yhe rest of their family to come to America also.

10 months 9 days ago

how does an illegal person get registered to vote.

7 months 3 days ago

They don’t, It is that simple. don’t listen to the dumb people spewing garbage out of their mouths just so they can hear themselves talk.

1 year 1 month ago

You just suggested an insurrection against the United States in the same sentence that you said “long live America.”

1 year 2 months ago

If we let immigrants come in they will make our life much more difficult (oh dear) because they will take away my job!! even though they haven’t gotten through year 10 of high school through no fault of their own and are sacrificing their lives so that the lives of their children can be better and my position as a proffesional inheriter of my father’s trust fund will be threatened my children will do drugs and obama will sell us out to the neonazis and gay people will run rampant through the streetss how horriFIC i want chicken qusha

Benjamin Candelaria
1 year 5 months ago

If impeachment, legal or illegal, is not a viable option or if no one wants to do it, then we are reduced to some very basic options, one of which is legal assassination. But somehow, someway we must get rid of this America-hating, rotten-to-the-core anti-American phony baloney, obvious Muslim-loving goof-ball who sweet-talked his way into the Oval Office and the voting public believed him!!! Now he has the audacity to flip off the American people! A friend of mine sent me a change that has obviously occurred and I hadn’t heard about it: POTUS was the acronym used for our President but now this man has changed it to read: Piece of Totally Useless Shit!

1 year 5 months ago

maybe we should all quit our jobs and go on welfare and let the illegals pay all the bills and unnecessary spending.

Jim Monson says
1 year 2 months ago
Don, We don’t have to give up our job, we just need to stop the money flow into government coffers for six months. How do we do that? You and every wage earner needs to change your dependent records to ten for just six months. This will slow the money withheld and sent to State and Feds. They will realize that WE THE PEOPLE still have the power of the purse. If we are smart we will file an estimated tax after the fact to make up for our difference. Once we have their attention, we also need to push all of our elected officials to instate the FAIR TAX PLAN, aka, a consumption tax, to replace our out of balance current tax system at both the state and federal levels. Then push them to balance the budgets at all levels of government. Now we can start being fair to… Read more »
1 year 1 month ago

Ah yes, the rule of the masses. They tried that somewhere. Athens, I think. Some might call it the “attempt at democracy” before we knew how to more successfully run a democracy.

Nancy Quinn
1 year 3 months ago

Illegal aliens are lazy people who don’t want to create jobs in their own country. They want to “suck off” the jobs
in our U.S.A. I say we are first responsible for our OWN!!! They need the jobs!!! It is NOT TRUE that they say they
are only taking jobs that Americans don’t want!!! Americans WANT JOBS!!! I say we seal the borders ON ALL FRONTS TO KEEP THESE PEOPLE OUT!!! THEY ARE NOT OURS AND THEY DON’T BELONG HERE!!!

1 year 1 month ago

Lucky for you Nancy, BLS stated that as of the last day of May there was a total of 5.4 million job openings in the US.

Marilyn Z
1 year 5 months ago

This has occurred to me, also. Problem is, you and I have worked hard all our lives to get a little ahead and now that we are a little ahead, we would not qualify. In addition, you and I are conservative and we would not be willing to lie to get in on the dole so we are done before we could begin.

Nancy Quinn
1 year 3 months ago

First of all, we need to get rid of the LEFT WING IN THIS COUNTRY. THEY ARE TAKERS, NOT GIVERS!!!
Our founding forefathers must be rolling over in their graves it they can see what is happening to our country!!! FYI: This country was not built on the TAKERS!!! It was built on the GIVERS!!! SEAL THE BORDERS…..NOW!!!

3 months 2 days ago

Have you looked at the Federal spending by state? “Left wing” Illinois, for example, only receives about 75% of what it sends to Washington in Federal taxes back in spending in Illinois. Two arch-conservative states, Mississippi and Alabama receive over 175% in Federal spending in their states relative to what they send to Washington in Federal taxes. In fact, the only two reliably conservative states to send more to Washington than they get back are Texas and Georgia, and they still both get about 95% back, far more than states like Illinois and California and New York, all of which receive back less than 80% of what they send to Washington.

So, if you were being honest, the REAL takers in this country are the so-called “conservatives,” who are a bunch of ignorant, hypocritical leeches.

1 year 5 months ago
I pretty much agree with you all about “our awful state” of affairs. Been voting for over 50 years, sending money to conservatives and their organizations, doing all I can to educate those around me, but I am realistic about what is happening and what will be the final chapter of our once free nation. I have children and lots of grandchildren. It will be bad, very bad. I am not worried or afraid. It has all been prophesied and it’s what is supposed to happen. We must stand in holy places and be prepared for what is to come. The Lord has promised He will come quickly less the whole earth destroys herself. And you can see we are on that path to destruction. Satan has great power and rages in the hearts of men. He is enjoying his day, but he loses in the end. Keep the faith,… Read more »
1 year 1 month ago

How did you get from illegal immigration to the apocalypse?

*fun fact – Mexico has a higher % of Christians than the US*

1 year 9 days ago
Higher percentage of Christians in Mexico, that’s a good one! It is also a fact that attending a Catholic church that is presided over by a marxist priest does not make anyone no matter the nationality a Christian. What kind of a Christian knowingly breaks the law of another country by entering without legal process and takes every advantage of all the social safety nets and to boot has children to hopefully ensure that when they are caught they will face the punishment of deportation? I have even seen their web sites with catholic priests as administrators. I ask you what true Christian would also break yet another law by aiding and abetting an illegal alien? That is not Christianity! Christianity is having a personal relation with Christ and being satisfied with whatever station in life God grants us, not lusting after a life in another country, breaking the law… Read more »
4 months 28 days ago
I’m all for shutting down the border because of logical economics and for the continuation of our country, but don’t mix that up with a ‘what kind of Christian’ rant. I’m pretty sure Jesus would be on the side of the Illegal Immigrants, after all, he didn’t steer clear of Mary Magdalen because she was a prostitute. This is not about what is Christian, its about our country’s inability to survive a mass Mexican exodus of more illegals. I say let the ones already here stay, make them legit, (that’s the Christian thing to do) then build a border that keeps the rest out and say that ‘God helps those who help themselves’. Remember that Jesus’ message was about faith AND love. Faith in Him and love for your fellow man. Do not be a Christian hater, that gives us all a bad name. What kind of Christian breaks the… Read more »
1 year 5 months ago

Not all illegal aliens are from Mexico. Many are Asians who have expired visas. Also terrorists from the middle east have come here via Mexico. Many are mistaken for Mexicans. Border officials have found Korans and prayer rugs that were tossed in the Mexican and Calif. deserts. Obama doesn’t care if ISIS gets in. It’s part of his plan to ruin this country. He’s no Christian, he’s a Muslim. WWIII has already started.

Nancy Quinn
1 year 3 months ago

The “O-man” is a Muslim, and we will be losing our country to this anti-American group, which is why we red-blooded Americans need to “make a lot of noise” about this, and get these people OUT OF HERE…..NOW!!!

Tom 2016
2 months 8 days ago

Americans wont allow this much longer !! Our Government that works for us seeing we pay them . must pull their heads out of their asses soon ! This country is no longer the North and South were all 1 now and we will all stick together ! Were not the Indians letting them take OUR Land !! If they think just because their rich that will happen their fools !! Vote Trump !!! He will Win and He will change this country with our help !! except the ones that are afraid ! lol Like the ones afraid to post their real name on here !!! LMAO these are Killarys puppets !!

3 months 2 days ago

He is not a Muslim.

1 year 5 months ago

So true…. proving the point that We are being sold out for VOTES.

1 year 5 months ago

The overwhelming majority of illegal aliens are Mexican.

Ruthie Smith
1 year 3 months ago

I just read where Hillary Clinton says Migrants have just as much right to be here as the American Citizen does. Hillary is like drinking poison, kind of like getting drunk and staying drunk, she is a bad person to vote for, she is all for woman having abortions on demand, killing American’s, she has a couple of wars she wants to start and she has promised Obama that she would keep doing what he has been doing, taking from American’s and giving OUR Money to his Brotherhood, Communist Countries and of course illegals. Hillary should be in Prison and not up for President.

1 year 1 month ago

You should be in literary prison after the amount of improper grammar and typos in that post #burn

1 year 9 days ago

Somebody nudge Ryan and wake him up, he thinks in English class at school!